Vienna Document Agreement
 Consolidated Summary of the 19th Annual Implementation Evaluation Meeting 2009 www.osce.org/documents/html/pdftohtml/37422_en.pdf.html, p. 49 With regard to the exchange of information in the framework of the Vienna Document, it was discussed at AIAM in March 2010 that new military technologies, capabilities and structures that have not been taken into account may require amendments to the document.  See “1999 Vienna Document on Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures” (page 36) “media.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/documents/july2010compliancereport072710.pdf In addition to on-site inspections, the Vienna Document obliges States to inform other Parties of certain military activities. In one provision, the document requires 42 days` prior notification of certain military activities, particularly those exceeding 9,000 soldiers, 250 tanks, 500 armoured fighting vehicles or 250 artillery guns. A second provision provides that the OSCE monitors all military activities exceeding 13,000 soldiers, 300 tanks, 500 armoured fighting vehicles and 250 artillery pieces. Finally, the parties to the document will not conduct more than one military activity every three years involving more than 40,000 soldiers or 900 tanks or 2,000 armoured fighting vehicles or 900 artillery guns. Negotiations on CsBM led to the adoption of the Vienna Document in 1990. The politically binding agreement provides for the exchange and verification of information on the armed forces and military activities. The State Department`s 2010 report on compliance with and compliance with arms control, non-proliferation, and disarmament agreements and obligations, which took into account compliance with treaties and agreements from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008, noted that “compliance with VD99 was good.”  The report acknowledges that some states did not submit their information for the December meeting, but that “most” states eventually submitted the necessary documentation. Background: The Vienna Document summarizes the objectives of the Decalogue of the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 and summarizes them in a politically binding document.
The principles of the Helsinki Final Act created the first confidence- and security-building measures, which were first elaborated in the Stockholm Document (1986) and later in the first Vienna Document. The first document, the 1990 Vienna Document, would have successors in the 1992, 1994 and 1999 Vienna Documents. All the Vienna documents are aimed at enhancing transparency and openness in the OSCE area. As the potential for conflict between Ukraine and Russia looms, participants in conventional arms control agreements, including the Vienna Document and the Open Skies Treaty, are trying to clarify the details of Russia`s military buildup on the Ukrainian border. Considered by many to be relics of the Cold War, the benefits of these agreements were underscored by the Ukrainian crisis. These agreements will not be a panacea for resolving the crisis, and Russia has not cooperated in full compliance with its demands, but its ability to increase transparency has nonetheless brought valuable benefits. The Vienna Document and the Open Skies Treaty, which were developed in the final years of the Cold War as mechanisms to increase transparency between NATO and the Warsaw Pact, are gaining relevance during the current Ukrainian crisis. Although the benefits of the agreements have not been fully exploited, the agreements have nevertheless provided useful information given the lack of access to the Crimean peninsula and the fact that Russia has not reported military activities in advance. Russia has fulfilled its overflight obligations under Open Skies and has organized the required number of Events under the Vienna Document, which allows for some transparency.
These agreements provide important means to better understand military activities and could help defuse the crisis. Amendments to the 1999 Vienna Document: A Decision of the Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC. DEC/1/10) established a procedure for the continuous updating of the Vienna Document, according to which decisions to update the text of the document are referred to as the Vienna Plus document.  Every five years, the Vienna Document is reissued with the modifications made to “Plus”. This does not delay the entry into force of changes that take effect immediately, unless expressly stated otherwise. The decisions of the Vienna Plus Document will replace the decisions of the 1999 Vienna Document, as they are the most recent.  The number of submissions can be found in the consolidated summary of AIAM 2009 www.osce.org/documents/fsc/2009/03/37422_en.pdf, the consolidated summary of AIAM 2010 and under dtirp.dtra.mil/TIC/synopses/gemi.cfm According to the various provisions of the document, OSCE members are allowed to carry out three inspections and two evaluation visits per calendar year in Russia. Earlier this year, Russia conducted significant military activities in northwestern Russia, which were different from military exercises on the Ukrainian border. Latvia and Switzerland each carried out an inspection during this period, so only one inspection was available for the recent military build-up on the Ukrainian border. For the latest inspection, Ukraine set up a team to monitor developments in the Russian regions of Belgorod and Kursk near the Ukrainian border.
In addition, the two assessment visits, aimed at gathering specific information on the garrison`s military units, were used for the Russian military exercise earlier this year.  “Decision No. 1/10 establishing a procedure for the inclusion of relevant FSC decisions in the Vienna Document” (FSC. DEC/1/10) www.osce.org/documents/fsc/2010/05/44706_en.pdf  See Article I “Annual Exchange of Military Intelligence” for specific information to be exchanged: www.osce.org/documents/fsc/1999/11/4265_en.pdf The Vienna Document, which applies to all OSCE participating States, is currently the most comprehensive agreement governing the military aspects of confidence and security in Europe. . . .